Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex

Contents in brief: What is the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex? Coenzymes of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex Where is the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex located? Functions of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex Other sources of acetyl-CoA Sources of pyruvate Mitochondrial pyruvate transport Structure of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex Structure of pyruvate dehydrogenase or E1 What is the function of […]

The pentose phosphate pathway

Contents in brief: What is the pentose phosphate pathway? The elucidation of the pentose phosphate pathway Functions of NADPH and ribose 5-phosphate Where does the pentose phosphate pathway occur? The two phases of the pentose phosphate pathway The steps of the oxidative phase of the pentose phosphate pathway The oxidation of glucose 6-phosphate to 6-phosphoglucono-δ-lactone […]

Glycolysis

Contents in brief: What is glycolysis? Glycolysis: the first metabolic pathway to be elucidated Why is glycolysis so important? The steps of glycolysis Reaction 1: glucose phosphorylation to glucose 6-phosphate The importance of glucose phosphorylation Other possible fates of glucose 6-phosphate Reaction 2: isomerization of glucose 6-phosphate to fructose 6-phosphate Reaction 3: phosphorylation of fructose […]

Gluconeogenesis

Contents in brief: What is gluconeogenesis? Why is gluconeogenesis important? Where does gluconeogenesis occur? Irreversible steps of gluconeogenesis From pyruvate to phosphoenolpyruvate Phosphoenolpyruvate precursor: pyruvate or alanine Phosphoenolpyruvate precursor: lactate From fructose 1,6-bisphosphate to fructose 6-phosphate From glucose 6-phosphate to glucose Gluconeogenesis: energetically expensive Coordinated regulation of gluconeogenesis and glycolysis Regulation of gluconeogenesis Pyruvate carboxylase […]

Glucose-alanine cycle

Contents in brief: What is the glucose-alanine cycle? The steps of the glucose-alanine cycle The Cahill cycle in skeletal muscle The Cahill cycle in the liver Transaminases Functions of the glucose-alanine cycle Energy cost of the glucose-alanine cycle Similarities and differences between Cahill cycle and Cori cycle References What is the glucose-alanine cycle? The glucose-alanine […]

Cori cycle: definition, function, biochemistry, involved tissues

Contents in brief: What is the Cori cycle? Where does the Cori cycle occur? The steps of the Cori cycle Lactate dehydrogenase Other metabolic fates of lactate Energy cost of the glucose-lactate cycle Is the Cori cycle a futile cycle? The Cori cycle and glucose-alanine cycle References What is the Cori cycle? The Cori cycle, […]

Bile salts: definition, functions, enterohepatic circulation, synthesis

Contents in brief: What are bile salts Chemical structure of bile salts Primary, conjugated and secondary bile salts Function of bile acids Enterohepatic circulation of bile salts Intestinal metabolism of bile acids Soluble fibers and reabsorption of bile salts Synthesis of primary bile acids The classical or neutral pathway The alternative or acidic pathway Minor […]

Human gut microbiota: definition, composition, and the effect of diet

Contents in brief: Definition and composition of the human gut microbiota Factors affecting gut microbiota composition and development The composition of the gut microbiota throughout life References Definition and composition of the human gut microbiota The human gastrointestinal tract is one of the most fierce and competitive ecological niches. It harbors viruses, eukaryotes, bacteria, and […]

Human microbiota: definition, composition, functions, antibiotics

Contents in brief: What is the human microbiota? Composition of the human microbiota Functions of the human microbiota Human Microbiome Project Effects of antibiotics References What is the human microbiota? It has been known for almost a century that humans harbor a microbial ecosystem, known as human microbiota, remarkably dense and diverse, made up of […]

Flavonoid biosynthesis pathway

Contents in brief: The flavonoid biosynthetic pathway in plants Biosynthesis of p-coumaroyl-CoA Phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) Cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H) 4-Coumarate:CoA ligase (4CL) Biosynthesis of malonyl-CoA The first steps in flavonoid biosynthesis References The flavonoid biosynthetic pathway in plants The biosynthesis of flavonoids, probably the best characterized pathway of plant secondary metabolism, is part of the […]

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