Glazing agents approved for use in food by the European Commission

Food additives permitted in the EU: glazing agents

Below is a review of some compounds used as glazing agents, propellant gases, modified starches, and to treat flour, present in the list of food additives approved in the European Community on the basis of the European Commission regulation No 1129/2011 published on 11 November 2011. This list is an amendment of Annex II to Regulation (EC) No. 1333/2008 of the European Parliament, that was then modified in 2013. The list in its entirety, in PDF and HTML format and in the different European languages, is available by following the link in the References.

Compounds used as glazing agents
E900 Dimethylpolysiloxane
E901 Beeswax, white and yellow
E902 Candelilla wax
E903 Carnauba wax
E904 Shellac
E905 Microcrystalline wax
E912 Montan acid esters, for surface treatment of citrus fruits
E914 Oxidised polyethylene wax
Compounds used to treat flour
E920 L-Cysteine, an amino acid
E927b Carbamide
Propellant gases
E938 Argon
E939 Helium
E941 Nitrogen
E942 Nitrous oxide
E943a Butane
E943b Isobutane
E944 Propane
E948 Oxygen
E949 Hydrogen
Modified starches, used as thickening and gelling agents
E1404 Oxidised starch
E1410 Monostarch phosphate
E1412 Distarch phosphate
E1413 Phosphated distarch phosphate
E1414 Acetylated distarch phosphate
E1420 Acetylated starch
E1422 Acetylated distarch adipate
E1440 Hydroxyl propyl starch
E1442 Hydroxy propyl distarch phosphate
E1450 Starch sodium octenyl succinate
E1451 Acetylated oxidised starch
E1452 Starch aluminium octenyl succinate
Miscellaneous compounds
E999 Quillaia extract
E1200 Polydextrose
E1201 Polyvinylpyrrolidone
E1202 Polyvinylpolypyrrolidone
E1203 Polyvinyl alcohol or PVA
E1505 Triethyl citrate
E1517 Glyceryl diacetate or diacetin
E1518 Glyceryltriacetate or triacetin
E1520 Propan-1,2-diol or propylene glycol


  1. Bender D.A. “Benders’ Dictionary of Nutrition and Food Technology” 8th ed. Woodhead Publishing. Oxford, 2006
  2. Commission Regulation (EU) No 1129/2011 of 11 November 2011 amending Annex II to Regulation (EC) No 1333/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council by establishing a Union list of food additives.

Biochemistry, metabolism, and nutrition