Yo-yo effect or weight cycling

What is yo-yo effect?

Weight cycling or yo-yo effect, i.e. repeated phases of loss and weight gain, appears related to excess weight and accumulation of fat in the abdomen.

Yo-yo effect and health

Several studies suggest a link with increased blood pressure, increased blood cholesterol, with gallbladder disease, with a significant increase in binge eating disorder, in women with greater easy to weight gain than those who are not subject to weight cycling. In this regard there should be emphasized that the weight cycling occurs over years, during which, aging, the rate of metabolism inevitably tends to decrease: this could make more difficult the subsequent losses.
Finally, weight cycling was also associated with a sense of depression with regard to weight.


Cereda E., Malavazos A.E., Caccialanza R., Rondanelli M., Fatati G. and Barichella M. Weight cycling is associated with body weight excess and abdominal fat accumulation: a cross-sectional study. Clin Nutr 2011;30(6):718-23. doi:10.1016/j.clnu.2011.06.009

Montani J-P., Viecelli A.K., Prévot A. & Dulloo A.G. Weight cycling during growth and beyond as a risk factor for later cardiovascular diseases: the ‘repeated overshoot’ theory. Int J Obes (Lond) 2006;30:S58-S66. doi:10.1038/sj.ijo.0803520

Sachiko T. St. Jeor S.T. St., Howard B.V., Prewitt T.E., Bovee V., Bazzarre T., Eckel T.H., for the AHA Nutrition Committee. Dietary Protein and Weight Reduction. A Statement for Healthcare Professionals From the Nutrition Committee of the Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Metabolism of the American Heart Association. Circulation 2001;104:1869-74. doi:10.1161/hc4001.096152

Invert sugar: definition, production, uses

Invert sugar (also known as inverted sugar) is sucrose partially or totally cleaved into fructose and glucose (also known dextrose) and, apart from the chemical process used (see below), the obtained solution has the same amount of the two monosaccharides.
Moreover, according to the product, not cleaved sucrose may also be present.

Invert sugar production

The breakdown of sucrose may happen in a reaction catalyzed by enzymes, such as:

  • sucrase, active at our own intestinal level;
  • invertase, an enzyme secreted by honeybees into the honey and used industrially to obtain invert sugar.

Another process applies acid action, as it happens partly in our own stomach and as it happened in the old times, and still happens, at home-made and industrial level. Sulfuric and hydrochloric acids was used, heating the solution with caution for some time; in fact the reaction is as fast as the solution is acid, regardless of the type of acid used, and as higher the temperature is. The acidity is then reduced or neutralized with alkaline substances, as soda or sodium bicarbonate.

A chemical process as described occurs when acid foods are prepared; i.e. in the preparation of jams and marmalades, where both conditions of acidity, naturally, and high temperatures, by heating, are present. The situation is analogous when fruit juices are sweetened with sucrose.
The reaction develops at room temperature as well, obviously more slowly.
What is the practical outcome of that?
It means that, during storage, also sweets and acid foods, even those just seen, go towards a slow reaction of inversion of contained/residue sucrose, with consequent modification of the sweetness, since invert sugar at low temperatures is sweeter (due to the presence of fructose), and assumption of a different taste profile.

Properties and uses

It is principally utilized in confectionery and ice-cream industries thanks to some peculiar characteristics.

  • It has an higher affinity for water (hydrophilicity) than sucrose (see fructose) therefore it keeps food more humid: e.g. cakes made with invert sugar dry up less easily.
  • It avoids or slows down crystal formation (dextrose and fructose form less crystals than sucrose), property useful in confectionery industries for icings and coverage.
  • It has a lower freezing point.
  • It increases, just a bit, the sweetness of the product in which it has been added, as it is sweeter than an equal amount of sucrose (the sweetness of fructose depends on the temperature in which it is present).
  • It may take part to Maillard reaction (sucrose can’t do it) thus contributing to the color and taste of several bakery products.

It should be noted that honey, lacking in sucrose, has almost the same composition in fructose and glucose of the 100% invert sugar (fructose is slightly more abundant than glucose). So, diluted honey, better if not much aromatic, may replace industrial invert sugar.


Belitz .H.-D., Grosch W., Schieberle P. “Food Chemistry” 4th ed. Springer, 2009

Bender D.A. “Benders’ Dictionary of Nutrition and Food Technology”. 8th Edition. Woodhead Publishing. Oxford, 2006


Mahan LK, Escott-Stump S.: “Krause’s foods, nutrition, and diet therapy” 10th ed. 2000

Shils M.E., Olson J.A., Shike M., Ross A.C. “Modern nutrition in health and disease” 9th ed., by Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, 1999

Stipanuk M.H., Caudill M.A. Biochemical, physiological, and molecular aspects of human nutrition. 3rd Edition. Elsevier health sciences, 2013 [Google eBooks]

Body weight: what to do not to increase it

Body Weight: Adjust Caloric Intake According to ConsumptionIn order to maintain your body weight, energy intake with foods must match your individual needs, depending on age, sex and level of physical activity; calories exceeding needs accumulate in form of fat that will deposit in various parts of the body (typically in men, as in postmenopausal women, the accumulation area for excellence is abdomen).
An example: let’s assume an energy requirement of 2000 kcal with an intake of 2100 kcal. The extra 100 kcal could result from 30 g of pasta or 35 g of bread or a 25 g package of crackers or 120 g of potatoes or 10 g of oils from any source etc., not a particularly large amount of food. This modest calories surplus, if performed daily for one year leads us to take:
100 kcal x 365 days = 36500 kcal/year extra calories compared to needs.
Since a kilogram of body fat contains approximately 7000 kcal, if we assume that 36500 kcal in excess accumulate exclusively in form of fat (very plausible approximation), we obtain: 36500/7000 = about 5 kilogram of body fat.
So, even a modest daily calorie surplus, over a year, can lead to a substantial body weight gain in the form of fat mass.
This example shows the importance of estimating with accuracy our daily energy requirements.

Split daily caloric intake into multiple meals

Let’s assume that daily caloric requirement to maintain body weight is equal to 2000 kcal.
Is it the same thing if they are consumed in just two meals, maybe dividing them in half between lunch and dinner, or is it advisable to take three to five meals during a day?
In order to mantain body weight, the best choice  is to divide calories into five meals: breakfast, lunch and dinner, the most abundant, plus two snacks, one on mid-morning and the other on mid-afternoon. Why? There are various reasons.

  • Consuming only two meals during the day, lunch and dinner or breakfast and dinner, it is likely to approach both meals with a hunger difficult to control; we eat what we have on our plate already thinking about what else to eat, having the feeling of not being able to satisfy the hunger. We eat, but there is always room for more food. Among the reasons for this there are too many hours between meals. Two examples:

dinner at 8:00 p.m. and, the next day, lunch at 1:00 p.m.: the interval is 17 hours, more than 2/3 of a day;

breakfast at 7:00 a.m. and dinner to 8:00 p.m., 13 hours have passed, most of which are spent in working activities and therefore more energy-consuming than hours of sleep.

Then, drops in blood sugar levels (glycemia) can also occur: liver glycogen stores, essential for maintaining normal glycemia, with time intervals between meals previously seen, can easily reach values close to depletion.

Therefore, by splitting the daily caloric intake into two meals, it is most likely difficult to meet the target of assuming 2000 kcal (the suggested daily calorie intake).

  • The concentration of too many calories in a single meal may promote the increase of plasma triglycerides, the excess of which is linked to the onset of cardiovascular disease.
  • When accumulating almost all or all of the calories in just two meals we are likely to grow stout, have feelings of bloating and getting real digestive problems due to excess of ingested food, not to mention that could occur even a postprandial sleepiness or difficulties in getting asleep.

Exercise regularly

Physical activity has a central role both in maintaining the reached body weight and in the loss of fat mass.
Make physical activity on a regular basis has several advantages.

  • If exercise is conducted on a regular basis and is structured in the proper way, is possible that, even without appreciable changes in weight, a redistribution of fat occurs between fat mass, which drops, and free fat mass, which, on the contrary, increases. Such a result can’t obviously be reached by simple walk; we need a specific training program, better if planned by a professional, and a proper diet, always of Mediterranean type.
  • We protect muscle mass (and as suggested in point 1. we can also increase it).
  • We maintain a high metabolism.
  • Muscle burn energy during and especially after exercise.
  • The body is toned.
  • Appetite is controlled more easily.
  • Making physical activity on a regular basis makes the prevention of weight gain easier, due to the inevitable “escapades” (indulging in a bit of chocolate, an ice cream etc..).

Giampietro M. L’alimentazione per l’esercizio fisico e lo sport. Il Pensiero Scientifico Editore. Prima edizione 2005

Haskell W.L., Lee I.M., Pate R.R., Powell K.E., Blair S.N., Franklin B.A., Macera C.A., Heath G.W., Thompson P.D., Bauman A..Physical activity and public health: updated recommendation for adults from the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Heart Association. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2007;39(8):1423-34. doi:10.1249/mss.0b013e3180616b27

Mahan L.K., Escott-Stump S.: “Krause’s foods, nutrition, and diet therapy” 10th ed. 2000

Shils M.E., Olson J.A., Shike M., Ross A.C.: “Modern nutrition in health and disease” 9th ed. 1999