Polyphenols in grapes and wine: chemical composition and biological activities

CONTENTS What are polyphenols in grapes and wine? Anthocyanins Flavanols or catechins Proanthocyanidins or condensed tannins Flavonols Hydroxycinnamates Stilbenes Hydroxybenzoates References The consumption of grapes and grape-derived products, particularly red wine but only at meals, has been associated with numerous health benefits, which include, in addition to the antioxidant/antiradical effect, also anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, anticancer, antimicrobial, […]

Anthocyanins: foods, absorption, metabolism

CONTENTS Anthocyanin rich foods Anthocyanin rich fruits Intestinal absorption of anthocyanins Anthocyanins and colonic microbiota References Anthocyanin rich foods Together with catechins and proanthocyanidins, anthocyanins and their oxidation products are the most abundant flavonoids in the human diet. They are found in: certain varieties of grains, such as some types of pigmented rice (e.g. black rice) […]

Proanthocyanidins and procyanidins in foods

CONTENTS Proanthocyanidins in foods A-type procyanidins in foods B-type procyanidins in foods Proanthocyanidins in fruits Proanthocyanidins in grape seeds References Proanthocyanidins in foods The interest on proanthocyanidins, and their content in foods, has increased as a result of the discovery, due to clinical and laboratory studies, of their anti-infectious, anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective and anticarcinogenic properties. These […]

Flavonols: definition, structure, food sources

CONTENTS What are flavonols? Chemical structure of flavonols Foods rich in flavonols The main flavonols in foods Quercetin Kaempferol Myricetin Isorhamnetin References What are flavonols? Flavonols are polyphenols belonging to the class of flavonoids. They are colorless molecules that accumulate mainly in the outer and aerial tissues, therefore skin and leaves, of fruit and vegetables, […]

Anthocyanins: definition, structure and pH

CONTENTS What are anthocyanins? Chemical structure of anthocyanins Role of pH References What are anthocyanins? Anthocyanins are a subgroup of flavonoids, therefore they are polyphenols, which give plants their distinctive colors. They are water soluble pigments and are present in the vacuolar sap of the epidermal tissues of flowers and fruit. They are responsible for […]

Proanthocyanidins: definition, structure and absorption

CONTENTS What are proanthocyanidins? Chemical structure of proanthocyanidins Procyanidins Intestinal absorption of proanthocyanidins Procyanidins and┬ácatechins References What are proanthocyanidins? Proanthocyanidins or┬ácondensed tannins, also called pycnogenols and leukocyanidins, are polyphenolic compounds (in particular they are a flavonoid subgroup) widely distributed in the plant kingdom, second only to lignin as the most abundant phenol in nature. They […]

Catechins: definition, structure, green tea, black tea, cocoa

CONTENTS What are catechins? Chemical structure of catechins Catechins in foods Catechins in green and black tea Catechins in cocoa and cocoa products Catechins in fruits, vegetables, and legumes References What are catechins? Catechins or flavanols, with flavonols such as quercetin, and flavones such as luteolin, are a subgroup of flavonoids among the most widespread […]

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