Lignans: definition, chemical structure, biosynthesis, metabolism, foods

Contents in brief: What are lignans? Chemical structure of lignans Biosynthesis of lignans Metabolism by human gut microbiota Food sources References What are lignans? Lignans are a subgroup of non-flavonoid polyphenols. They are widely distributed in the plant kingdom, being present in more than 55 plant families, where they act as antioxidants and defense molecules […]

Hydroxycinnamic acids: definition, chemical structure, synthesis, foods

Contents in brief: What are hydroxycinnamic acids? Chemical structure of hydroxycinnamic acids Biosynthesis of hydroxycinnamic acids The main hydroxycinnamic acids in foods Caffeic acid Ferulic acid Sinapic acid p-Coumaric acid References What are hydroxycinnamic acids? Hydroxycinnamic acids or hydroxycinnamates are phenolic compounds belonging to non-flavonoid polyphenols. They are present in all parts of fruits and […]

Polyphenols in grapes and wine: chemical composition and biological activities

Contents in brief: What are polyphenols in grapes and wine? Anthocyanins Flavanols or catechins Proanthocyanidins or condensed tannins Flavonols Hydroxycinnamates Stilbenes Hydroxybenzoates References The consumption of grapes and grape-derived products, particularly red wine but only at meals, has been associated with numerous health benefits, which include, in addition to the antioxidant/antiradical effect, also anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, […]

Chemical composition of olive oil

Contents in brief: Olive oil constituents Saponifiable fraction Triglycerides Diglycerides and monoglycerides Unsaponifiable fractions Polyphenols Hydrocarbons Sterols Common sterols or 4α-desmethylsterols 4-Methylsterols Triterpene alcohols or 4,4-dimethylsterols Triterpene dialcohols Tocopherols Pigments Triterpene acids Fatty alcohols Diterpene alcohols Volatile compounds Minor components References Olive oil constituents From a chemical point of view, we can identify in the […]

Polyphenols in olive oil: variability and chemical composition

Contents in brief: Polyphenols in olive oil: influences of environment and extraction process Key polyphenols in olive oil Flavonoids Phenolic acids and phenolic alcohols Hydroxytyrosol Secoiridoids Oleuropein Lignans References Polyphenols in olive oil: influences of environment and extraction process Olive oil, which is obtained from the pressing of the olives, the fruits of olive tree […]

Black tea: definition, processing and polyphenols

What is black tea? Black tea, like the other types of tea, is an infusion of processed leaves of Camellia sinensis, the tea plant, a shrub that belongs to the Theaceae family. Black tea, a type of fully fermented tea, is the most consumed tea worldwide, accounting for about 78% of the consumed tea. It […]

Green tea: definition, processing, properties, polyphenols

What is green tea? Green tea is an infusion of processed leaves of tea plant, Camellia sinensis, a member of the Theaceae family. It is the most consumed beverages in Asia, particularly in China and Japan. Western populations consume black tea more frequently than green tea. However, in recent years, thanks to its health benefits, it […]

Anthocyanins: foods, absorption, metabolism

Contents in brief: Anthocyanin rich foods Anthocyanin rich fruits Intestinal absorption of anthocyanins Anthocyanins and colonic microbiota References Anthocyanin rich foods Together with catechins and proanthocyanidins, anthocyanins and their oxidation products are the most abundant flavonoids in the human diet. They are found in: certain varieties of grains, such as some types of pigmented rice (e.g. […]

Tea polyphenols: bioactive compounds from leaves of tea plant

Tea polyphenols: from the leaf to the cup The leaves of the tea plant, Camellia sinensis, and tea are rich in bioactive compounds. More than 4000 molecules have been found in the beverage. Approximately one third of these compounds are polyphenols, the most important molecules in determining nutritional value and health benefits of the beverage. “Tea is […]

Isoflavones: definition, structure and soy

Contents in brief: What are isoflavones? Chemical structure of isoflavones Soy isoflavones: genistein, daidzein and glycitein Phytoestrogens and menopause References What are isoflavones? Isoflavones are colorless polyphenols belonging to the class of flavonoids. Unlike the majority of the other flavonoids, they have a restricted taxonomic distribution, being present almost exclusively in the Leguminosae or Fabaceae […]

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