Bile salts: definition, functions, enterohepatic circulation, synthesis

Contents in brief: What are bile salts Chemical structure of bile salts Primary, conjugated and secondary bile salts Function of bile acids Enterohepatic circulation of bile salts Intestinal metabolism of bile acids Soluble fibers and reabsorption of bile salts Synthesis of primary bile acids The classical or neutral pathway The alternative or acidic pathway Minor […]

Human gut microbiota: definition, composition, and the effect of diet

Contents in brief: Definition and composition of the human gut microbiota Factors affecting gut microbiota composition and development The composition of the gut microbiota throughout life References Definition and composition of the human gut microbiota The human gastrointestinal tract is one of the most fierce and competitive ecological niches. It harbors viruses, eukaryotes, bacteria, and […]

Lignans: definition, chemical structure, biosynthesis, metabolism, foods

Contents in brief: What are lignans? Chemical structure of lignans Biosynthesis of lignans Metabolism by human gut microbiota Food sources References What are lignans? Lignans are a subgroup of non-flavonoid polyphenols. They are widely distributed in the plant kingdom, being present in more than 55 plant families, where they act as antioxidants and defense molecules […]

Anthocyanins: foods, absorption, metabolism

Contents in brief: Anthocyanin rich foods Anthocyanin rich fruits Intestinal absorption of anthocyanins Anthocyanins and colonic microbiota References Anthocyanin rich foods Together with catechins and proanthocyanidins, anthocyanins and their oxidation products are the most abundant flavonoids in the human diet. They¬†are found in: certain varieties of grains, such as some types of pigmented rice (e.g. […]

Scroll Up