Glycogen: an efficient storage form of energy in aerobic conditions

What is the net energy yield for the oxidation of a glucose unit from glycogen in aerobic conditions? In aerobic conditions, the oxidation of a free glucose to CO2 and H2O (glycolysis, Krebs cycle and oxidative phosphorylation) leads to the net production of about 30 molecules of ATP. Glucose from the action of glycogen phosphorylase: glucose-1-phosphate […]

Ingestion of solid, liquid or gel carbohydrates 60 min before exercise

The form of carbohydrates ingested before exercise may have different effects on both metabolism and performance. Moreover, the ingestion of solid foods slows gastric empty, digestion and absorption rates compared with liquid foods and this has a different impact on glycemia. For these reasons, several studies have investigated the effects of the form of carbohydrates on […]

Glycogen: an efficient storage form of energy in anaerobic conditions

What is the net energy yield for the oxidation of a glucose unit from glycogen in anaerobic conditions? In anaerobic conditions, the oxidation of a free glucose to lactate leads to the net production of two molecules of ATP. Glucose from the action of glycogen phosphorylase: glucose-1-phosphate release (about 90% of the removed units) Glycogen […]

Strategies to maximize muscle glycogen resynthesis after exercise

Contents in brief: Post-exercise muscle glycogen synthesis The two phases of muscle glycogen synthesis after exercise The first phase The second phase Muscle glycogen synthesis rate and ingestion of carbohydrates and proteins The two phases: molecular mechanisms Glycogen synthesis rate and insulin Insulin and preferential carbohydrate storage References Post-exercise muscle glycogen synthesis An important energy source for working muscle is its glycogen store, whose level is […]

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