The pentose phosphate pathway

CONTENTS What is the pentose phosphate pathway? The elucidation of the pentose phosphate pathway Functions of NADPH and ribose 5-phosphate Where does the pentose phosphate pathway occur? The two phases of the pentose phosphate pathway The steps of the oxidative phase of the pentose phosphate pathway The oxidation of glucose 6-phosphate to 6-phosphoglucono-δ-lactone Catalytic mechanism […]


CONTENTS What is glycolysis? Glycolysis: the first metabolic pathway to be elucidated Why is glycolysis so important? The steps of glycolysis Reaction 1: glucose phosphorylation to glucose 6-phosphate The importance of glucose phosphorylation Other possible fates of glucose 6-phosphate Reaction 2: isomerization of glucose 6-phosphate to fructose 6-phosphate Reaction 3: phosphorylation of fructose 6-phosphate to […]


CONTENTS What is gluconeogenesis? Why is gluconeogenesis important? Where does gluconeogenesis occur? Irreversible steps of gluconeogenesis From pyruvate to phosphoenolpyruvate Phosphoenolpyruvate precursor: pyruvate or alanine Phosphoenolpyruvate precursor: lactate From fructose 1,6-bisphosphate to fructose 6-phosphate From glucose 6-phosphate to glucose Gluconeogenesis: energetically expensive Coordinated regulation of gluconeogenesis and glycolysis Regulation of gluconeogenesis Pyruvate carboxylase Fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase […]

Glucose-alanine cycle

CONTENTS What is the glucose-alanine cycle? The steps of the glucose-alanine cycle The Cahill cycle in skeletal muscle The Cahill cycle in the liver Transaminases Functions of the glucose-alanine cycle Energy cost of the glucose-alanine cycle Similarities and differences between Cahill cycle and Cori cycle References What is the glucose-alanine cycle? The glucose-alanine cycle, or […]

Cori cycle: definition, function, biochemistry, involved tissues

CONTENTS What is the Cori cycle? Where does the Cori cycle occur? The steps of the Cori cycle Lactate dehydrogenase Other metabolic fates of lactate Energy cost of the glucose-lactate cycle Is the Cori cycle a futile cycle? The Cori cycle and glucose-alanine cycle References What is the Cori cycle? The Cori cycle, or glucose-lactate […]

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