Contents in brief: What is glycolysis? Glycolysis: the first metabolic pathway to be elucidated Why is glycolysis so important? The steps of glycolysis Reaction 1: glucose phosphorylation to glucose 6-phosphate The importance of glucose phosphorylation Other possible fates of glucose 6-phosphate Reaction 2: isomerization of glucose 6-phosphate to fructose 6-phosphate Reaction 3: phosphorylation of fructose […]

Maltodextrin, fructose and endurance sports

Carbohydrate ingestion can improve endurance capacity and performance. The ingestion of different types of carbohydrates, which use different intestinal transporters, can: increase total carbohydrate absorption; increase exogenous carbohydrate oxidation; and therefore improve performance. Glucose and fructose When a mixture of glucose and fructose is ingested (in the analyzed literature, respectively 1.2 and 0.6 g/min, ratio 2:1, for […]

Prolonged exercise and carbohydrate ingestion

During prolonged exercise (>90 min), like marathon, Ironman, cross-country skiing, road cycling or open water swimming, the effects of supplementary carbohydrates on performance are mainly metabolic rather than central and include: the provision of an additional muscle fuel source when glycogen stores become depleted; muscle glycogen sparing; the prevention of low blood glucose concentrations. How many carbohydrates should […]

Hypoglycemia and carbohydrate ingestion 60 min before exercise

Hypoglycemia: strategies to limit it in susceptible subjects From several studies it appears that the risk of developing hypoglycemia (blood glucose < 3.5 mmol /l or < 63 mg/l) is highly individual: some athletes are very prone to develop it and others are much more resistant. A strategy to minimize glycemic and insulinemic responses during exercise is to delay […]

Invert sugar: definition, production, uses

What is invert sugar? Invert sugar (also known as inverted sugar) is sucrose partially or totally cleaved into fructose and glucose (also known dextrose) and, apart from the chemical process used (see below), the obtained solution has the same amount of the two monosaccharides. Moreover, according to the product, not cleaved sucrose may also be present. Invert […]

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