Flavonoid biosynthesis pathway

Contents in brief: The flavonoid biosynthetic pathway in plants Biosynthesis of p-coumaroyl-CoA Phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) Cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H) 4-Coumarate:CoA ligase (4CL) Biosynthesis of malonyl-CoA The first steps in flavonoid biosynthesis References The flavonoid biosynthetic pathway in plants The biosynthesis of flavonoids, probably the best characterized pathway of plant secondary metabolism, is part of the […]

Lignans: definition, chemical structure, biosynthesis, metabolism, foods

Contents in brief: What are lignans? Chemical structure of lignans Biosynthesis of lignans Metabolism by human gut microbiota Food sources References What are lignans? Lignans are a subgroup of non-flavonoid polyphenols. They are widely distributed in the plant kingdom, being present in more than 55 plant families, where they act as antioxidants and defense molecules […]

Hydroxycinnamic acids: definition, chemical structure, synthesis, foods

Contents in brief: What are hydroxycinnamic acids? Chemical structure of hydroxycinnamic acids Biosynthesis of hydroxycinnamic acids The main hydroxycinnamic acids in foods Caffeic acid Ferulic acid Sinapic acid p-Coumaric acid References What are hydroxycinnamic acids? Hydroxycinnamic acids or hydroxycinnamates are phenolic compounds belonging to non-flavonoid polyphenols. They are present in all parts of fruits and […]

Polyphenols in grapes and wine: chemical composition and biological activities

Contents in brief: What are polyphenols in grapes and wine? Anthocyanins Flavanols or catechins Proanthocyanidins or condensed tannins Flavonols Hydroxycinnamates Stilbenes Hydroxybenzoates References The consumption of grapes and grape-derived products, particularly red wine but only at meals, has been associated with numerous health benefits, which include, in addition to the antioxidant/antiradical effect, also anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, […]

Polyphenols in olive oil: variability and chemical composition

Contents in brief: Polyphenols in olive oil: influences of environment and extraction process Key polyphenols in olive oil Flavonoids Phenolic acids and phenolic alcohols Hydroxytyrosol Secoiridoids Oleuropein Lignans References Polyphenols in olive oil: influences of environment and extraction process Olive oil, which is obtained from the pressing of the olives, the fruits of olive tree […]

Green tea: definition, processing, properties, polyphenols

What is green tea? Green tea is an infusion of processed leaves of tea plant, Camellia sinensis, a member of the Theaceae family. It is the most consumed beverages in Asia, particularly in China and Japan. Western populations consume black tea more frequently than green tea. However, in recent years, thanks to its health benefits, it […]

Anthocyanins: foods, absorption, metabolism

Contents in brief: Anthocyanin rich foods Anthocyanin rich fruits Intestinal absorption of anthocyanins Anthocyanins and colonic microbiota References Anthocyanin rich foods Together with catechins and proanthocyanidins, anthocyanins and their oxidation products are the most abundant flavonoids in the human diet. They are found in: certain varieties of grains, such as some types of pigmented rice (e.g. […]

Tea polyphenols: bioactive compounds from leaves of tea plant

Tea polyphenols: from the leaf to the cup The leaves of the tea plant, Camellia sinensis, and tea are rich in bioactive compounds. More than 4000 molecules have been found in the beverage. Approximately one third of these compounds are polyphenols, the most important molecules in determining nutritional value and health benefits of the beverage. “Tea is […]

Isoflavones: definition, structure and soy

Contents in brief: What are isoflavones? Chemical structure of isoflavones Soy isoflavones: genistein, daidzein and glycitein Phytoestrogens and menopause References What are isoflavones? Isoflavones are colorless polyphenols belonging to the class of flavonoids. Unlike the majority of the other flavonoids, they have a restricted taxonomic distribution, being present almost exclusively in the Leguminosae or Fabaceae […]

Green tea benefits for health

Benefits of green tea: science and myths Tea drinking, particularly green tea, has always been associated, at least in East Asia cultures (mainly in China and Japan) with health benefits. Only recently, the scientific community has begun to study the health benefits of tea consumption, recognizing its preventive value in many diseases. Green tea benefits […]

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