Polyphenols in grapes and wine: chemical composition and biological activities

CONTENTS What are polyphenols in grapes and wine? Anthocyanins Flavanols or catechins Proanthocyanidins or condensed tannins Flavonols Hydroxycinnamates Stilbenes Hydroxybenzoates References The consumption of grapes and grape-derived products, particularly red wine but only at meals, has been associated with numerous health benefits, which include, in addition to the antioxidant/antiradical effect, also anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, anticancer, antimicrobial, […]

Weight loss and green tea: myth and legend

Green tea: a fat burning food for weight loss? In the phase of weight loss, as during weight maintenance, it is important to maintain as constant as possible the daily energy expenditure. Indeed, daily caloric consumption usually decreases during weight loss. Since the 90s of last century, it has been proposed that green tea, thanks […]

Black tea: definition, processing and polyphenols

What is black tea? Black tea, like the other types of tea, is an infusion of processed leaves of Camellia sinensis, the tea plant, a shrub that belongs to the Theaceae family. Black tea, a type of fully fermented tea, is the most consumed tea worldwide, accounting for about 78% of the consumed tea. It […]

Green tea: definition, processing, properties, polyphenols

What is green tea? Green tea is an infusion of processed leaves of tea plant, Camellia sinensis, a member of the Theaceae family. It is the most consumed beverages in Asia, particularly in China and Japan. Western populations consume black tea more frequently than green tea. However, in recent years, thanks to its health benefits, it […]

Anthocyanins: foods, absorption, metabolism

CONTENTS Anthocyanin rich foods Anthocyanin rich fruits Intestinal absorption of anthocyanins Anthocyanins and colonic microbiota References Anthocyanin rich foods Together with catechins and proanthocyanidins, anthocyanins and their oxidation products are the most abundant flavonoids in the human diet. They are found in: certain varieties of grains, such as some types of pigmented rice (e.g. black rice) […]

Tea polyphenols: bioactive compounds from leaves of tea plant

Tea polyphenols: from the leaf to the cup The leaves of the tea plant, Camellia sinensis, and tea are rich in bioactive compounds. More than 4000 molecules have been found in the beverage. Approximately one third of these compounds are polyphenols, the most important molecules in determining nutritional value and health benefits of the beverage. Tea polyphenols […]

Isoflavones: definition, structure and soy

CONTENTS What are isoflavones? Chemical structure of isoflavones Soy isoflavones: genistein, daidzein and glycitein Phytoestrogens and menopause References What are isoflavones? Isoflavones are colorless polyphenols belonging to the class of flavonoids. Unlike the majority of the other flavonoids, they have a restricted taxonomic distribution, being present almost exclusively in the Leguminosae or Fabaceae plant family, […]

Green tea benefits for health

Benefits of green tea: science and myths Tea drinking, particularly green tea, has always been associated, at least in East Asia cultures (mainly in China and Japan) with health benefits. Only recently, the scientific community has begun to study the health benefits of tea consumption, recognizing its preventive value in many diseases. Green tea benefits […]

Tea: cultivation, processing and preparation

Tea: form bush to cup for your health Tea is an aromatic infusion extracted from the dried leaves of Camellia sinensis, a member of the Theaceae family. Tea is a beverage with very ancient origins, dating back to almost 4000 years ago, and it is one of the most consumed beverage worldwide, particularly in Asia, […]

Flavonols: definition, structure, food sources

CONTENTS What are flavonols? Chemical structure of flavonols Foods rich in flavonols The main flavonols in foods Quercetin Kaempferol Myricetin Isorhamnetin References What are flavonols? Flavonols are polyphenols belonging to the class of flavonoids. They are colorless molecules that accumulate mainly in the outer and aerial tissues, therefore skin and leaves, of fruit and vegetables, […]

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