Maltodextrin, fructose and endurance sports

Carbohydrate ingestion can improve endurance capacity and performance. The ingestion of different types of carbohydrates, which use different intestinal transporters, can: increase total carbohydrate absorption; increase exogenous carbohydrate oxidation; and therefore improve performance. Glucose and fructose When a mixture of glucose and fructose is ingested (in the analyzed literature, respectively 1.2 and 0.6 g/min, ratio 2:1, for […]

Prolonged exercise and carbohydrate ingestion

During prolonged exercise (>90 min), like marathon, Ironman, cross-country skiing, road cycling or open water swimming, the effects of supplementary carbohydrates on performance are mainly metabolic rather than central and include: the provision of an additional muscle fuel source when glycogen stores become depleted; muscle glycogen sparing; the prevention of low blood glucose concentrations. How many carbohydrates should […]

Hydration before endurance sports

Dehydration and endurance sports In endurance sports, like Ironman, open water swimming, road cycling, marathon, or cross-country skiing, the most likely contributors to fatigue are dehydration and carbohydrate (especially liver and muscle glycogen) depletion. Pre-hydration Due to sweat loss needed to dissipate the heat generated during exercise, dehydration can compromise exercise performance. It is important to […]

Ingestion of solid, liquid or gel carbohydrates 60 min before exercise

The form of carbohydrates ingested before exercise may have different effects on both metabolism and performance. Moreover, the ingestion of solid foods slows gastric empty, digestion and absorption rates compared with liquid foods and this has a different impact on glycemia. For these reasons, several studies have investigated the effects of the form of carbohydrates on […]

Hypoglycemia and carbohydrate ingestion 60 min before exercise

Hypoglycemia: strategies to limit it in susceptible subjects From several studies it appears that the risk of developing hypoglycemia (blood glucose < 3.5 mmol /l or < 63 mg/l) is highly individual: some athletes are very prone to develop it and others are much more resistant. A strategy to minimize glycemic and insulinemic responses during exercise is to delay […]

Carbohydrate loading before competition

Carbohydrate loading and endurance exercise Carbohydrate loading is a good strategy to increase fuel stores in muscles before the start of the competition. What does the muscle “eat” during endurance exercise? Muscle “eats” carbohydrates, in the form of glycogen, stored in the muscles and liver, carbohydrates ingested during the exercise or just before that, and fat. During endurance […]

Endurance sports and nutrition

What are endurance sports? In the last years endurance sports, defined in the PASSCLAIM document of the European Commission as those lasting 30 min or more, are increasing in popularity and competitions as half marathons, marathons, even ultramarathons, half Ironmans, or Ironman competitions attract more and more people. They are competitions which can last hours, […]

Strategies to maximize muscle glycogen resynthesis after exercise

Contents in brief: Post-exercise muscle glycogen synthesis The two phases of muscle glycogen synthesis after exercise The first phase The second phase Muscle glycogen synthesis rate and ingestion of carbohydrates and proteins The two phases: molecular mechanisms Glycogen synthesis rate and insulin Insulin and preferential carbohydrate storage References Post-exercise muscle glycogen synthesis An important energy source for working muscle is its glycogen store, whose level is […]

Skeletal muscle glycogen stores and sports

Functions of skeletal muscle glycogen Muscle glycogen represents a source of glucose, therefore energy, that can be used by muscle during physical activity: it is an energy store where needed! Furthermore a close relationship exists between the onset of fatigue and depletion of its muscle stores. Glycogen as energy source Carbohydrates and fatty acids represent the main […]

Daily protein requirements for athletes

Daily protein requirements and sports It is now accepted by athletes, coaches and athletic trainers that proper diet is one of the cornerstones for achieving better athletic performance. Despite this widely spread assumption, many, even at the highest levels, still believe that an high protein intake is fundamental in the athlete’s diet. This opinion is […]

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