Ingestion of solid, liquid or gel carbohydrates 60 min before exercise

The form of carbohydrates ingested before exercise may have different effects on both metabolism and performance. Moreover, the ingestion of solid foods slows gastric empty, digestion and absorption rates compared with liquid foods and this has a different impact on glycemia. For these reasons, several studies have investigated the effects of the form of carbohydrates on […]

Blood glucose levels and liver

Blood glucose levels and hepatic glycogen One of the main functions of the liver is to participate in the maintaining of blood glucose levels within well defined range (in the healthy state before meals 60-100 mg/dL or 3.33-5.56 mmol/L). To do it the liver releases glucose into the bloodstream in: fasting state; between meals; during physical […]

Glycogen: definition, structure and functions

What is glycogen? Glycogen is an homopolysaccharide formed by units of glucose. Chemically similar to amylopectin, and therefore sometimes referred to as animal starch, compared to the latter it is more compact, extensively branched and larger, reaching a molecular weight up to 108 Da corresponding to about 600000 glucose molecules. As in the amylopectin, glucose units in […]

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