Hydroxycinnamic acids: definition, chemical structure, synthesis, foods

Contents in brief: What are hydroxycinnamic acids? Chemical structure of hydroxycinnamic acids Biosynthesis of hydroxycinnamic acids The main hydroxycinnamic acids in foods Caffeic acid Ferulic acid Sinapic acid p-Coumaric acid References What are hydroxycinnamic acids? Hydroxycinnamic acids or hydroxycinnamates are phenolic compounds belonging to non-flavonoid polyphenols. They are present in all parts of fruits and […]

Polyphenols in grapes and wine: chemical composition and biological activities

Contents in brief: What are polyphenols in grapes and wine? Anthocyanins Flavanols or catechins Proanthocyanidins or condensed tannins Flavonols Hydroxycinnamates Stilbenes Hydroxybenzoates References The consumption of grapes and grape-derived products, particularly red wine but only at meals, has been associated with numerous health benefits, which include, in addition to the antioxidant/antiradical effect, also anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, […]

Polyphenols in olive oil: variability and chemical composition

Contents in brief: Polyphenols in olive oil: influences of environment and extraction process Key polyphenols in olive oil Flavonoids Phenolic acids and phenolic alcohols Hydroxytyrosol Secoiridoids Oleuropein Lignans References Polyphenols in olive oil: influences of environment and extraction process Olive oil, which is obtained from the pressing of the olives, the fruits of olive tree […]

Anthocyanins: foods, absorption, metabolism

Contents in brief: Anthocyanin rich foods Anthocyanin rich fruits Intestinal absorption of anthocyanins Anthocyanins and colonic microbiota References Anthocyanin rich foods Together with catechins and proanthocyanidins, anthocyanins and their oxidation products are the most abundant flavonoids in the human diet. They are found in: certain varieties of grains, such as some types of pigmented rice (e.g. […]

Flavonols: definition, structure, food sources

Contents in brief: What are flavonols? Chemical structure of flavonols Foods rich in flavonols The main flavonols in foods Quercetin Kaempferol Myricetin Isorhamnetin References What are flavonols? Flavonols are polyphenols belonging to the class of flavonoids. They are colorless molecules that accumulate mainly in the outer and aerial tissues, therefore skin and leaves, of fruit […]

Anthocyanins: definition, structure and pH

Contents in brief: What are anthocyanins? Chemical structure of anthocyanins Role of pH References What are anthocyanins? Anthocyanins are a subgroup of flavonoids, therefore they are polyphenols, which give plants their distinctive colors. They are water soluble pigments and are present in the vacuolar sap of the epidermal tissues of flowers and fruit. They are […]

Proanthocyanidins: definition, structure and absorption

Contents in brief: What are proanthocyanidins? Chemical structure of proanthocyanidins Procyanidins Intestinal absorption of proanthocyanidins Procyanidins and catechins References What are proanthocyanidins? Proanthocyanidins or condensed tannins, also called pycnogenols and leukocyanidins, are polyphenolic compounds (in particular they are a flavonoid subgroup) widely distributed in the plant kingdom, second only to lignin as the most abundant phenol in […]

Flavonoids: definition, structure and classification

Contents in brief: What are flavonoids? Chemical structure of flavonoids Classification of flavonoids References What are flavonoids? Flavonoids are the most abundant polyphenols in human diet, representing about 2/3 of all those ones ingested. Like other phytochemicals, they are the products of secondary metabolism of plants and, currently, it is not possible to determine precisely […]

Functions of carotenoids in plants and foods

Through the course of evolution, carotenoids, thank to their unique physical and chemical properties, have proven to be highly versatile molecules, being able to perform many functions in many different organisms, like plants. Carotenoids in photosynthesis Carotenoids, in the early stages of the emergence of single-celled photosynthetic organisms, are probably been used for light harvesting […]

Scroll Up