Bile salts: definition, functions, enterohepatic circulation, synthesis

CONTENTS What are bile salts Chemical structure of bile salts Primary, conjugated and secondary bile salts Function of bile acids Enterohepatic circulation of bile salts Intestinal metabolism of bile acids Soluble fibers and reabsorption of bile salts Synthesis of primary bile acids The classical or neutral pathway The alternative or acidic pathway Minor pathways Bile […]

Chemical composition of olive oil

CONTENTS Olive oil constituents Saponifiable fraction Triglycerides Diglycerides and monoglycerides Unsaponifiable fractions Polyphenols Hydrocarbons Sterols Common sterols or 4α-desmethylsterols 4-Methylsterols Triterpene alcohols or 4,4-dimethylsterols Triterpene dialcohols Tocopherols Pigments Triterpene acids Fatty alcohols Diterpene alcohols Volatile compounds Minor components References Olive oil constituents From a chemical point of view, we can identify in the olive oil […]

Skin, blood pressure, rheumatoid arthritis and gamma-linolenic acid

Healthy skin and gamma-linolenic acid gamma-Linolenic acid (GLA), an omega-6 essential fatty acid, like its precursor linoleic acid (the most abundant polyunsaturated fatty acid in human skin epidermis, where it’s involved in the maintenance of the epidermal water barrier), plays important roles in the physiology and pathophysiology of the skin. Studies conducted on humans revealed that gamma-linolenic acid: improves skin moisture, firmness, […]

Trans fatty acids

CONTENTS Definition and chemical structure of trans fatty acids Properties of fats rich in trans fatty acids Sources of trans fatty acids Industrial trans fatty acids Partial hydrogenation of vegetable oils Ruminant trans fatty acids Isomers of dietary trans fatty acids Trans fatty acids: effects on human health Trans fatty acids: effects at plasmatic level […]

Omega-3 fatty acid supplements in the secondary prevention of CVD

Omega-3 fatty acids and prevention of CVD Studies conducted on Greenland Eskimos, which consume large amount of fish or marine mammals rich in omega-3 fatty acids and have a low incidence of cardiovascular disease or CVD, have suggested a protective effects of such fatty acids against these disease. Results of other epidemiological studies, randomized trials and animal […]

Long chain fatty acid synthesis

CONTENTS Fatty acid synthesis De novo fatty acid synthesis in plants and animals Synthesis of long chain saturated and unsaturated fatty acids Omega-3 and omega-6 PUFA synthesis References Fatty acid synthesis When excess calories are consumed from carbohydrates or proteins, such surplus is used to synthesize fatty acids and then triacylglycerols, while it doesn’t occur if the excess […]

Omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids

The synthesis of ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids Omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids are the major polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in the Western diet (about 90% of all of them in the diet), being components of most animal and vegetable fats. ω-6 Polyunsaturated fatty acids and linoleic acid Within the omega-6 (ω-6) family, linoleic acid is one of the […]

Relationship between omega-3, omega-6 and omega-9 PUFA

Relationship between omega-3 fatty acids on functions mediated by omega-6 fatty acids Impair uptake of omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Inhibit desaturases, especially Δ6 desaturase. Competitively inhibit cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase. Compete with omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids for acyltransferases. Dilute pools of free arachidonic acid. Displace arachidonic acid from specific phospholipid pools. Form eicosanoid analogs with less […]

Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids

The synthesis of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids Within omega-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acid family: alpha-linolenic acid; eicosapentaenoic acid or EPA; docosahexaenoic acid or DHA. are important fatty acids. ω-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids and α-linolenic acid Like linoleic acid (omega-6 fatty acid), alpha-linolenic acid or ALA is a primary product of plant polyunsaturated fatty acid or PUFA synthesis […]

Essential fatty acids

CONTENTS What are essential fatty acids? Functions of EFA and their PUFA derivatives Foods rich in essential fatty acids and derived PUFAs Essential fatty acids in Western diets Omega-6/omega-3 ratio Recommended dietary intake References What are essential fatty acids? Essential fatty acids or EFA are fatty acids which cannot be synthesized de novo by animals, but […]

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