All posts by Dr. Nicola Tazzini

Nicola Tazzini, MS in Biology Sciences Doctor Tazzini graduated summa cum laude at the University of Pisa on Nov. 11th, 1996 after 1½ year, carried out in the laboratory of Biochemistry of the Department of Biochemistry and Physiology of the Faculty of Natural, Physical and Mathematical Sciences. The subject of his thesis was "Studies about the mechanism of cytotoxicity of the combination of deoxyadenosine and deoxycoformicine on a cell line derived from a human colon carcinoma" (see References). He registered as a Biologist at the University of Pisa on May 10th, 1998. He specialized "Summa cum Laude" in "Biochemistry and Clinical Chemistry" in Oct. 30th, 2001 at the Department of Biological Chemistry of the Faculty of Medicine and Surgery of the University of Parma. The subject of his thesis was: "Analyses of ematochemical, enzymatic and non-enzymatic parameters with antioxidant activity in young professional athletes". He has started his activity of Nutritionist on Feb. 02nd, 2002. He attended the following courses related to the activity of Nutritionist. 2000 1. Pasta in human nutrition. Associazione Biologi Nutrizionisti Italiani. 2. Course of forming and updating in nutrition and health: roll of Biologist. Associazione Scientifica Biologi Pisa. 2001 Elements of nutrition. Associazione Scientifica Biologi Pisa. 2002 Nutrition as healthy factors, professional update. Associazione Biologi Nutrizionisti Italiani. 2003 Nutrition as healthy factors- first part. Associazione Biologi Nutrizionisti Italiani. 2004 1. Nutrition as healthy factors- second part. Associazione Biologi Nutrizionisti Italiani. 2. Nutrition in childhood. Associazione Biologi Nutrizionisti Italiani. 3. Sport activity, growth and correct nutrition. Associazione Biologi Nutrizionisti Italiani. 4. Nutrition and tumor. PLANNING congressi Srl. 2005 1. Doping: guidelines and diagnostic assessments: legal, biochemical, medical and toxicological aspects. Restless Architech of Human Possibilities S.a.s. 2. Nutrition in the third age: nutritional issues and proper nutritional habits. Associazione Biologi Nutrizionisti Italiani. 3. Technical legislation evolution and ethics in development of the profession. Ordine Nazionale dei Biologi. 2006 1. Sport and nutrition. Syntonie S.r.l. 2. Nutrition and prevention: choose to stay healthy. Ordine Nazionale dei Biologi. 3. Pathology nutrition and legislation aspects. Syntonie S.r.l. 4. Nutrition: guidelines. Ordine Nazionale dei Biologi. 2007 Nutrition topics: food as welfare tool: physiological and pathological balance factors. Ordine Nazionale dei Biologi. 2008 1. Outdoor and indoor environment. Resources and balances. Ordine Nazionale dei Biologi. 2. Biologist ’profession in the current technical legislation evolution. Ordine Nazionale dei Biologi. 3. Prevention of childhood obesity: nutritional strategies from pregnancy to school age. Ordine Nazionale dei Biologi. 2009 Nutrition, the cornerstone. Nutritional and health needs in the era of the genome. S.I.N.U. 2010 1. The evolution of food safety. Ordine Nazionale dei Biologi. 2. Food safety and correct nutrition. Associazione Scientifica Biologi Pisa and Ordine Nazionale dei Biologi. 2011 Role of coffee in physiological and pathological states. CMGRP Italia S.p.A. 2012 1. Nutrigenetics and obesity. A.I.Nu.C. S.r.l. 2. The sense of hormonal dance in female complexity: the role of nutrition. A.I.Nu.C. 3. Nutrition in sport: from training to post-competition recovery. DocLeader S.r.l. 2013 1. Understanding clinical data analysis and nutritional advice. A.I.Nu.C. S.r.l. 2. Nutrition in cardiovascular diseases: prevention and nutritional strategies. Akesios group s.r.l. 3. The proper use of probiotics. ALFA FCM S.r.l. 2014 1. Nutrition in metabolic diseases. Prevention and nutritional strategies. A.C.S.I.A.N. 2. Gluten-related disorders: classification, diagnosis, therapy. DNA Medical Communication 3. Nutrition and Laboratory Medicine. Allmeetings S.r.l. 4. Health passes through the intestine: the role of intestinal permeability. A.I.Nu.C. S.r.l. 2015 1. The best way for Biologist. Provider Dynamicom Education S.r.l. 2. Abdominal swelling and discomfort: lactose intolerance, SIBO and irritable bowel syndrome. Allmeetings S.r.l. 2016 Conscious nutrition and healthy nutrition with an overall educational/training objective: food safety and/or related diseases. B.B.C. By Business Center S.r.l. 2017 Gender Medicine: beyond the pink pill and the blue pill. FIB - Fondazione Italiana Biologi 2018 Patient understanding: from body composition to nutritional aspects in physiopathological conditions. AKESIOS GROUP s.r.l. Reference 1. Bemi V., Tazzini N., Banditelli S., Giorgelli F., Pesi R., Turchi G., Mattana A., Sgarrella F., Tozzi M.G., Camici M. Deoxyadenosine metabolism in a human colon-carcinoma cell line (LoVo) in relation to its cytotoxic effect in combination with deoxycoformycin. Int J Cancer 1998;75(5):713-20. doi:https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-0215(19980302)75:53.0.CO;2-1 2. Cassandra Studio . Nutraceuti e cibi funzionali. Youcanprint, 2015 3. Singh A.N., Baruah M.M. & Sharma N. Structure based docking studies towards exploring potential anti-androgen activity of selected phytochemicals against prostate cancer. Sci Rep 2017;7(1):1955. doi:10.1038/s41598-017-02023-5 4. Wee T.T., Lun K.R. Teaching science in culturally relevant ways: ideas from Singapore teachers. World Scientific, 2014

Body weight: what to do not to increase it

Body Weight: Adjust Caloric Intake According to ConsumptionIn order to maintain your body weight, energy intake with foods must match your individual needs, depending on age, sex and level of physical activity; calories exceeding needs accumulate in form of fat that will deposit in various parts of the body (typically in men, as in postmenopausal women, the accumulation area for excellence is abdomen).
An example: let’s assume an energy requirement of 2000 kcal with an intake of 2100 kcal. The extra 100 kcal could result from 30 g of pasta or 35 g of bread or a 25 g package of crackers or 120 g of potatoes or 10 g of oils from any source etc., not a particularly large amount of food. This modest calories surplus, if performed daily for one year leads us to take:
100 kcal x 365 days = 36500 kcal/year extra calories compared to needs.
Since a kilogram of body fat contains approximately 7000 kcal, if we assume that 36500 kcal in excess accumulate exclusively in form of fat (very plausible approximation), we obtain: 36500/7000 = about 5 kilogram of body fat.
So, even a modest daily calorie surplus, over a year, can lead to a substantial body weight gain in the form of fat mass.
This example shows the importance of estimating with accuracy our daily energy requirements.

Split daily caloric intake into multiple meals

Let’s assume that daily caloric requirement to maintain body weight is equal to 2000 kcal.
Is it the same thing if they are consumed in just two meals, maybe dividing them in half between lunch and dinner, or is it advisable to take three to five meals during a day?
In order to mantain body weight, the best choice  is to divide calories into five meals: breakfast, lunch and dinner, the most abundant, plus two snacks, one on mid-morning and the other on mid-afternoon. Why? There are various reasons.

  • Consuming only two meals during the day, lunch and dinner or breakfast and dinner, it is likely to approach both meals with a hunger difficult to control; we eat what we have on our plate already thinking about what else to eat, having the feeling of not being able to satisfy the hunger. We eat, but there is always room for more food. Among the reasons for this there are too many hours between meals. Two examples:

dinner at 8:00 p.m. and, the next day, lunch at 1:00 p.m.: the interval is 17 hours, more than 2/3 of a day;

breakfast at 7:00 a.m. and dinner to 8:00 p.m., 13 hours have passed, most of which are spent in working activities and therefore more energy-consuming than hours of sleep.

Then, drops in blood sugar levels (glycemia) can also occur: liver glycogen stores, essential for maintaining normal glycemia, with time intervals between meals previously seen, can easily reach values close to depletion.

Therefore, by splitting the daily caloric intake into two meals, it is most likely difficult to meet the target of assuming 2000 kcal (the suggested daily calorie intake).

  • The concentration of too many calories in a single meal may promote the increase of plasma triglycerides, the excess of which is linked to the onset of cardiovascular disease.
  • When accumulating almost all or all of the calories in just two meals we are likely to grow stout, have feelings of bloating and getting real digestive problems due to excess of ingested food, not to mention that could occur even a postprandial sleepiness or difficulties in getting asleep.

Exercise regularly

Physical activity has a central role both in maintaining the reached body weight and in the loss of fat mass.
Make physical activity on a regular basis has several advantages.

  • If exercise is conducted on a regular basis and is structured in the proper way, is possible that, even without appreciable changes in weight, a redistribution of fat occurs between fat mass, which drops, and free fat mass, which, on the contrary, increases. Such a result can’t obviously be reached by simple walk; we need a specific training program, better if planned by a professional, and a proper diet, always of Mediterranean type.
  • We protect muscle mass (and as suggested in point 1. we can also increase it).
  • We maintain a high metabolism.
  • Muscle burn energy during and especially after exercise.
  • The body is toned.
  • Appetite is controlled more easily.
  • Making physical activity on a regular basis makes the prevention of weight gain easier, due to the inevitable “escapades” (indulging in a bit of chocolate, an ice cream etc..).
References

Giampietro M. L’alimentazione per l’esercizio fisico e lo sport. Il Pensiero Scientifico Editore. Prima edizione 2005

Haskell W.L., Lee I.M., Pate R.R., Powell K.E., Blair S.N., Franklin B.A., Macera C.A., Heath G.W., Thompson P.D., Bauman A..Physical activity and public health: updated recommendation for adults from the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Heart Association. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2007;39(8):1423-34. doi:10.1249/mss.0b013e3180616b27

Mahan L.K., Escott-Stump S.: “Krause’s foods, nutrition, and diet therapy” 10th ed. 2000

Shils M.E., Olson J.A., Shike M., Ross A.C.: “Modern nutrition in health and disease” 9th ed. 1999