Glazing agents approved for use in food by the European Commission

Food additives permitted in the EU: glazing agents

Below is a review of some compounds used as glazing agents, propellant gases, modified starches, and to treat flour, present in the list of food additives approved in the European Community on the basis of the European Commission regulation No 1129/2011 published on 11 November 2011. This list is an amendment of Annex II to Regulation (EC) No. 1333/2008 of the European Parliament, that was then modified in 2013. The list in its entirety, in PDF and HTML format and in the different European languages, is available by following the link in the References.

E900, E901, E902, E903, E904, E905, E912, E914, E920, E927b, E938, E939, E941, E942, E943a, E943b, E944, E948, E949, E999, E1200, E1201, E1202, E1203, E1404, E1410, E1412, E1413, E1414, E1420, E1422, E1440, E1442, E1450, E1451, E1452, E1505, E1517, E1518, E1520
Compounds used as glazing agents
E900      Dimethylpolysiloxane
E901      Beeswax. white and yellow
E902      Candelilla wax
E903      Carnauba wax
E904      Shellac
E905      Microcrystalline wax
E912      Montan acid esters (for surface treatment of citrus fruits)
E914      Oxidised polyethylene wax
Compounds used to treat flour
E920      L-Cysteine (an amino acid)
E927b    Carbamide
Propellant gases
E938      Argon
E939      Helium
E941      Nitrogen
E942      Nitrous oxide
E943a    Butane
E943b    Iso-butane
E944      Propane
E948      Oxygen
E949      Hydrogen
Modified starches (used as thickening and gelling agents)
E1404    Oxidised starch
E1410    Monostarch phosphate
E1412    Distarch phosphate
E1413    Phosphated distarch phosphate
E1414    Acetylated distarch phosphate
E1420    Acetylated starch
E1422    Acetylated distarch adipate
E1440    Hydroxyl propyl starch
E1442    Hydroxy propyl distarch phosphate
E1450    Starch sodium octanoyl succinate
E1451    Acetylated oxidised starch
E1452    Starch aluminium octenyl succinate
Miscellaneous compounds
E999      Quillaia extract
E1200    Polydextrose
E1201    Polyvinylpyrrolidone
E1202    Polyvinylpolypyrrolidone
E1203    Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)
E1505    Triethyl citrate
E1517    Glyceryl diacetate (diacetin)
E1518    Glyceryltriacetate; triacetin
E1520    Propan-1,2-diol; propylene glycol


Bender D.A. “Benders’ Dictionary of Nutrition and Food Technology” 8th ed. Woodhead Publishing. Oxford, 2006

Commission Regulation (EU) No 1129/2011 of 11 November 2011 amending Annex II to Regulation (EC) No 1333/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council by establishing a Union list of food additives.

Biochemistry, metabolism, and nutrition